Practical Workbook - Milady - [PDF Document] (2024)

Practical Workbook - Milady - [PDF Document] (1)

CHAP

TER

20C

Date:

Rating:

Text Pages: 562–625

POINT TO PONDER:“Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.”

—Ralph Waldo Emerson

WHY STUDY CHEMICAL TEXTURE SERVICES? 1. In your own words, explain why cosmetologists should study and thoroughly

understand chemical texture services.

2. are hair services that cause chemical changes that

alter the hair’s natural wave pattern

3. Identify some chemical texture services:

a)

b)

c)

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THE STRUCTURE OF HAIR 4. Name the layers of the hair.

a)

b)

c)

5. The cuticle is directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair.

True

False

6. The medulla plays no role in chemical texture services and may be missing in

fine hair.

True

False

7. The natural pH of hair is between and .

8. Chemical texturizers the pH of the hair to an alkaline state to soften

and swell the hair shaft.

9. Coarse, resistant hair with a strong, compact cuticle layer requires a highly

alkaline chemical solution.

True

False

10. List the basic building blocks of hair.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

11. bonds, also known as end bonds, are chemical bonds that join

amino acids, end-to-end in long chains, to form a polypeptide chain.

12. Side bonds are , , and bonds that cross-link

polypeptide chains.

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13. Disulfide bonds can be broken by the extreme heat produced by some thermal

styling tools.

True

False

14. Disulfide bonds are the weakest of the three side bonds.

True

False

15. Salt bonds are broken by changes in pH.

True

False

16. Individual hydrogen bonds are very weak.

True

False

PERMANENT WAVING 17. is a two-step process in which the hair undergoes a

physical change caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods and then causing a

chemical change by applying permanent waving solution and neutralizer.

18. You should always perform an elasticity test before perming the hair.

True

False

19. A wet set breaks bonds, whereas a permanent wave breaks

bonds.

20. In permanent waving, what two factors determine curl size?

a)

b)

21. List the types of rods used in chemical texture services.

a)

b)

c)

d)

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22. rods produce a tighter curl in the center and a looser curl on either

side of the strand.

23. Soft bender rods are usually about -inches (cm) long with a uniform

diameter along the entire length.

24. End papers should extend beyond the ends of the hair to prevent ,

hair that is bent up at the ends.

25. Name the most common end paper techniques.

a)

b)

c)

26. What is the purpose of the double flat wrap?

27. The wrap eliminates excess paper and can be used with short rods

or with very short lengths of hair.

28. are subsections of panels into which the hair is divided for

perm wrapping.

29. Explain how base placement is determined.

30. Using a base section that is wider than the perm rod can create an uneven curl

pattern and undue tension on the hair.

True

False

31. In which type of base placement is the hair wrapped at a 90-degree angle?

a) On base

b) Half off base

c) Off base

d) All answers are correct.

32. refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head.

33. A(n) wrap is wrapped from the ends to the scalp in

overlapping concentric layers.

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34. In a spiral perm wrap, the hair is wrapped perpendicular to the length of the rod.

True

False

35. Alkaline permanent waving solutions soften and swell the hair.

True

False

36. Name the reactions that occur in the chemical process of permanent waving.

a)

b)

c)

d)

37. All permanent wave solutions contain a reducing agent.

True

False

38. , a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the

most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions.

39. The alkalinity of the perm solution should correspond to the ,

, and of the cuticle layer.

40. Alkaline waves have a pH between and .

41. is the main active ingredient in true acid

and acid-balanced waving lotions.

42. List the three components of all acid waves.

a)

b)

c)

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43. Explain how a true acid wave, with a pH below 7.0, can cause the hair to swell.

44. Pure water can damage the hair.

True

False

45. Discuss the effect of higher pH on acid-balanced waves.

46. An exothermic chemical reaction absorbs heat.

True

False

47. Give two examples of alkanolamines that are used in permanent waving

solutions as substitutes for ammonia.

a)

b)

48. Permanents based on sulfites are very weak and do not provide firm curls,

especially on strong or resistant hair.

True

False

49. Hair that has been treated with semipermanent color is less porous than hair

treated with permanent color.

True

False

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50. Which of the following perm types is recommended for extremely porous hair?

a) Alkaline/cold wave

b) Thio-free wave

c) True acid wave

d) Exothermic wave

51. Explain how the strength and processing amount of a permanent wave process

is determined.

52. is essential to proper processing in all

permanent waves.

53. A properly processed permanent wave should break and rebuild approximately

percent of the hair’s disulfide bonds.

54. Overprocessed hair is overly curly.

True

False

55. Underprocessed hair is usually straighter at the scalp and curlier at the ends.

True

False

56. In permanent waving, stops the action of the waving

solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form.

57. Identify the two functions of neutralization:

a)

b)

58. The most common neutralizer is .

59. Give some tips for proper rinsing and blotting during thio neutralization.

a)

b)

c)

d)

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e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

60. Identify the information preliminary test curls provide:

a)

b)

c)

61. Give the steps for the stylist preparation portion of the pre-service procedure.

a)

b)

c)

d)

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e)

f)

62. Outline the portion of the post-service procedure dedicated to preparing the

work area and implements for the next client.

a)

b)

c)

63. Name the implements, materials, and supplies needed to perform a preliminary

test curl for a permanent wave.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

n)

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o)

p)

q)

r)

s)

t)

64. Specify the three basic wrapping patterns.

a)

b)

c)

65. The is the position of the tool in relation to its base section,

determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.

66. In the procedure for permanent wave and processing using a basic permanent

wrap, you wrap the hair into panels.

67. What is the proper procedure for wrapping panels in permanent wave and

processing using a basic permanent wrap?

a)

b)

c)

68. Discuss the sectioning procedure for permanent wave and processing using a

curvature permanent wrap.

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69. Outline the procedure for permanent wave and processing using a bricklay

permanent wrap.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

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70. The technique uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.

71. What is the procedure for permanent wave and processing using a weave

technique?

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

72. What is the double-rod or piggyback wrap technique?

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73. Name all the implements, materials, and supplies needed for permanent wave

and processing using a spiral wrap technique.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

n)

o)

p)

q)

r)

s)

t)

74. Partial perms can be used for what kinds of clients?

a)

b)

c)

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75. What additional considerations are there for partial perms?

a)

b)

76. Why are many male clients requesting perms?

a)

b)

c)

d)

77. What problems can a perm help a male client with?

a)

b)

c)

78. The techniques for permanent waving men’s hair differ from those used on

women.

True

False

79. List the safety precautions for permanent waving.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

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f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

CHEMICAL HAIR RELAXERS 80. is a process or service that rearranges the structure of

curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.

81. What are the two most common types of chemical hair relaxers?

a)

b)

82. In extremely curly hair, the thinnest and weakest sections are at the twists.

True

False

83. is the measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that

affects how the fluid flows.

84. Most relaxers contain the same ingredients used in depilatories.

True

False

85. The chemical reactions of thio relaxers differ from those used in permanent

waving.

True

False

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86. Explain how to avoid scalp irritation when applying thio relaxer to virgin

hair.

87. Discuss the proper procedure for applying thio relaxer to virgin hair once

protective base cream has been applied.

88. For a thio relaxer retouch, divide the hair into sections.

89. Explain what to do during a thio relaxer retouch once the relaxer has been

applied to all sections.

a)

b)

c)

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d)

e)

f )

g)

h)

90. What is the general procedure for Japanese thermal straighteners?

91. Hydroxide relaxers are compatible with thio relaxers, permanent waving, and soft

curl perms.

True

False

92. The average pH of the hair is , and many hydroxide relaxers have a pH

.

93. In , the process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently

straighten hair, the relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and

convert it into a lanthionine bond.

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94. Identify the types of hydroxide relaxers:

a)

b)

c)

95. What are the two most common low-pH relaxers?

a)

b)

96. , also known as protective base cream, is an oily cream used

to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.

97. Protective base cream should not touch the hair because it will slow the

chemical straightening process.

True

False

98. Most chemical relaxers are available in what three strengths?

a)

b)

c)

99. All demipermanent haircoloring uses low volumes of peroxide or other alkalizing

agents.

True

False

100. What is the purpose of periodic strand testing?

101. Unlike thio neutralization, is an acid-alkali

neutralization that neutralizes (deactivates) the alkaline residues left in the hair

by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp.

102. Because the scalp area and porous hair ends usually process more quickly

than the middle of the strand, the application for a virgin relaxer starts

to inch(es) (cm) from the scalp.

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103. What is the proper way to apply hydroxide relaxer to virgin hair?

104. What is the proper procedure when hair ends need additional relaxing during a

hydroxide relaxer retouch?

105. Which of the following relaxers is compatible with soft curl permanents?

a) Guanidine hydroxide

b) Ammonium thioglycolate

c) Sodium hydroxide

d) Lithium hydroxide

106. Keratin alone will straighten hair.

True

False

107. How do keratin straightening treatments work?

108. Preconditioning before a keratin straightening treatment is meant to

.

109. If a client wishes to have a demi-gloss treatment, it should be done at least

to days after the keratin treatment.

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CURL RE-FORMING (SOFT CURL PERMANENT) 110. A(n) is a combination of a thio relaxer and a thio

permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger and

looser.

111. List the materials, implements, and supplies needed for curl re-forming (soft

curl perm).

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

112. Give some safety precautions for hair relaxing and curl re-forming.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

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h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

n)

o)

p)

q)

r)

s)

t)

u)

v)

w)

x)

y)

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113. What is a curl re-forming?

114. By what other name is a soft curl permanent called?

115. What effect does a soft curl permanent have on the hair?

116. List all the implements and supplies needed for a soft curl perm.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

n)

o)

p)

q)

r)

s)

t)

u)

v)

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117. How do you prepare yourself and your client for a soft curl permanent?

a)

b)

c)

d)

118. The first step in the soft curl permanent procedure is to follow the procedure for

applying a .

119. After the hair has processed and is rinsed, part the hair into panels.

120. Use the length of the to measure the width of the panels.

121. Where should you begin wrapping?

122. Apply and distribute the thio curl booster to each as you wrap.

123. What size should the horizontal partings be?

124. Hold the hair at a angle to the head, roll the hair down to the

scalp and position the rod .

125. Place cotton around the and apply thio curl booster to

all the curls until they are .

126. When processing is completed, rinse the hair thoroughly, for at least

, and then towel-blot the hair on each rod to

. 127. Apply the slowly and carefully to the hair on each rod.

128. Describe the clean-up procedure for this service:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

129. It is advisable to apply a hydroxide relaxer on hair that has been previously

treated with a thio relaxer.

True

False

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130. Do not apply a thio relaxer on hair that has been previously treated with a

hydroxide relaxer.

True

False

131. Do not chemically relax hair that has been treated with a metallic dye.

True

False

132. It is advisable to shampoo the client’s hair prior to the application of a

hydroxide relaxer.

True

False

133. If any solution accidentally gets into a client’s eye,

.

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CHAP

TER

21C

Date:

Rating:

Text Pages: 626–684

POINT TO PONDER:“You can’t depend on your judgment when your imagination is out

offocus.”—Mark Twain

1. Clients who have their hair colored usually visit the salon every to

weeks.

WHY STUDY HAIRCOLORING? 2. In your own words, explain why cosmetologists should study and thoroughly

understand hair coloring.

WHY PEOPLE COLOR THEIR HAIR 3. Identify the reasons people color their hair:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

4. is a professional, industry-coined term referring to artificial haircolor

products and services, while refers to the natural color of hair.

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HAIR FACTS 5. The structure of the client’s hair and the desired results determine which

haircolor to use.

True

False

6. Name the three major components of hair.

a)

b)

c)

7. The , the middle layer of hair, gives the hair most of its strength and

elasticity.

8. In hair, melanin is distributed differently according to texture.

True

False

9. Hair , the number of hairs per square inch (2.5 square cm), can range

from thin to thick.

10. Define the term porosity.

11. In hair of porosity, the cuticle is slightly raised.

12. Outline the procedure for testing for porosity.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

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IDENTIFYING NATURAL HAIR COLOR AND TONE 13. List the three types of melanin in the cortex.

a)

b)

c)

14. , also known as undertone, is the varying degrees of

warmth exposed during a permanent color or lightening process.

15. is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of

a color.

16. Haircolor levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with being the darkest

and the lightest.

17. Artificial light has no impact on the perception of color.

True

False

18. The first step when performing a haircolor service is to

.

19. What are the four steps to determining natural level?

a)

b)

c)

d)

20. A(n) color is the predominant tone of a color.

21. Equal parts of blue and yellow always make green.

True

False

22. colors are pure or fundamental colors (red, yellow, and blue) that

cannot be created by combining other colors.

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23. Which of the following is the weakest of the primary colors?

a) Yellow

b) Blue

c) Red

d) Orange

24. When all three primary colors are present in equal proportions, the resulting color

is .

25. Black can be made by mixing colors together.

True

False

26. Which of the following is a secondary color?

a) Red

b) Yellow

c) Green

d) Blue

27. Complementary colors neutralize each other.

True

False

28. The stylist should use which of the following colors to neutralize orange?

a) Yellow

b) Violet

c) Blue

d) Green

29. Name the four warm tones that can look lighter than their actual levels.

a)

b)

c)

d)

30. refers to the strength of a color.

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TYPES OF HAIRCOLOR 31. Identify the two categories of haircoloring products:

a)

b)

32. Which of the following is a use of demipermanent color?

a) Add subtle results

b) Blend gray hair

c) Create bright changes

d) All answers are correct.

33. Give the roles of an alkalizing ingredient.

a)

b)

c)

34. The pigments in temporary color penetrate the cuticle layer.

True

False

35. Traditional semipermanent haircolor lasts to weeks.

36. Why are demipermanent haircolor products able to deposit without lifting?

37. Permanent haircoloring products are regarded as the best products for covering

gray hair.

True

False

38. Natural and metallic haircolors are known as colors.

39. Henna is usually available only in what tones?

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40. Metallic haircolors have been marketed to women.

True

False

41. A(n) is an oxidizing agent that, when mixed

with an oxidation haircolor, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop the

color molecules and create a change in natural hair color.

42. What volume hydrogen peroxide should you use with high-lift colors?

a) 10

b) 20

c) 30

d) 40

43. List the objectives of hair lighteners.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

44. During the process of decolorizing, natural hair can go through as many as

stages.

45. How are toners used?

CONSULTATION 46. A haircolor consultation is the most critical part of the color service.

True

False

47. Give some examples of leading questions to ask during the consultation.

a)

b)

c)

d)

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48. Medications can affect hair color.

True

False

49. What is the purpose of the release statement?

HAIRCOLOR FORMULATION 50. List the four basic questions you should always ask when formulating a haircolor.

a)

b)

c)

d)

51. Permanent color is applied by what two methods?

a)

b)

52. A patch test must be given to hours before the application of any

aniline haircolor.

53. List the main portions of the pre-service procedure.

a)

b)

c)

d)

54. What are the main portions of the post-service procedure?

a)

b)

c)

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55. Give the procedure for performing a patch test.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

HAIRCOLOR APPLICATIONS 56. The strand test is performed before the client is prepared for the coloring service.

True

False

57. Name the materials, implements, and supplies needed for temporary haircolor

application.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

58. Semipermanent colors only deposit color.

True

False

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59. The application procedure for demipermanent haircolor is similar to that of a

traditional semipermanent color.

True

False

60. In a(n) application, hair is colored for the first time.

61. Outline the procedure for permanent single-process retouch with a glaze.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

62. What is the purpose of double-process high-lift coloring.

63. When lightening virgin hair, lightener should be applied inch(es) (cm)

from the scalp.

USING LIGHTENERS 64. Colorists can choose from what three forms of lightener?

a)

b)

c)

65. Name the features and benefits of cream lighteners.

a)

b)

c)

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66. are powdered persulfate salts added to haircolor to increase its

lightening ability.

67. Discuss the use of powdered off-the-scalp lighteners.

68. Why is a preliminary strand test performed?

69. Compare the procedure for a lightener retouch with that for lightening virgin hair.

USING TONERS 70. Toners require a double-process application.

True

False

71. Detail the procedure for toner application.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

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SPECIAL EFFECTS HAIRCOLORING 72. , also known as lowlighting, is the technique of coloring

strands of hair darker than the natural color.

73. What are the three most common methods for achieving highlights?

a)

b)

c)

74. In the procedure for special effects haircoloring with foil, the hair is divided into

sections.

75. The technique, also known as the free-form technique, involves

painting a lightener (usually powdered off-the-scalp lightener) directly onto clean,

styled hair.

76. When are highlighting shampoos used?

SPECIAL CHALLENGES IN HAIRCOLOR/CORRECTIVE SOLUTIONS 77. Name the factors that can cause yellowed hair.

a)

b)

c)

d)

78. For gray hair, formulations from Level will provide better

coverage and can be used to create pastel and blond tones if desired.

79. For hair that is 30 to 50 percent gray, the semipermanent/demipermanent color

formulation should be:

a) One level lighter than the desired level

b) Two levels lighter than the desired level

c) Equal parts one and two levels lighter

d) Equal parts desired and one level lighter

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80. Give tips for achieving gray coverage.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

81. is the process of treating gray or very resistant hair to allow for

better penetration of color.

82. Give rules for effective color correction.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

83. List the characteristics of damaged hair.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

84. fillers are used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair and

equalize porosity so that the hair accepts the color evenly from strand to strand

and from scalp to ends, while fillers equalize porosity and deposit color

in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on prelightened hair.

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85. Yellow blond hair can be corrected to a natural blond by adding what two

colors?

a)

b)

86. Fading is uncommon with color-treated red hair.

True

False

87. List haircolor tips for redheads.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

88. What are some haircolor tips for blonds?

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

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89. What is the solution for hair with a green cast?

90. What should the stylist do if the overall hair color is too dark?

91. Provide the steps for restoring blond hair to its natural color.

a)

b)

c)

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HAIRCOLORING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 92. List haircoloring safety precautions.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

m)

n)

o)

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CHAP

TER

22CCDate:

Rating:

Text Pages: 685–707

POINT TO PONDER:“Chance favors the prepared mind.”—Louis Pasteur

1. Hair removal is one of the fasting growing services in the salon and spa

business.

True

False

2. is a waxing technique that requires the removal of all

hair from the front and the back of the bikini area.

3. Many men are now requesting hair removal services.

True

False

4. Men most often request hair removal for which of the following areas?

a) Nape of the neck

b) Chest

c) Back

d) All answers are correct.

5. The most common form of hair removal in salons and spas is .

6. , also known as , refers to the growth of an

unusual amount of hair on parts of the body normally bearing only downy hair,

such as the faces of women or the backs of men.

7. Name the two major categories of hair removal.

a)

b)

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WHY STUDY HAIR REMOVAL? 8. In your own words, explain why cosmetologists should study and thoroughly

understand hair removal.

CLIENT CONSULTATION 4. Similar to an intake form, a(n) is a questionnaire that

discloses all medications, both topical and oral, along with any known skin

disorders or allergies that might affect treatment.

5. List some medications that may render a client unsuited to hair removal services.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

6. How often should clients complete release forms for hair removal services?

a) Every visit

b) Every other visit

c) Every year

d) Once at initial visit

CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR HAIR REMOVAL 7. Waxing or hair removal should not be performed on clients who:

a)

b)

c)

d)

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e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

8. Facial waxing should not be performed on clients with any of the following

conditions:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

PERMANENT HAIR REMOVAL 9. Match each of the following types of permanent hair removal with its definition.

Electrolysis a) Technique that uses intense light to destroy

the growth cells of the hair follicles

Photoepilation b) Method in which a beam pulses on the skin,

impairing hair growth

Laser hair removal c) Removal by means of an electric current

that destroys the growth cells of hair

10. Who can perform electrolysis?

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11. Who can perform photoepilation?

12. Clinical studies have shown that photoepilation can provide to

percent clearance of hair in weeks.

13. Laser hair removal is most effective when used on follicles in the or

phase.

14. What type of hair responds best to laser treatment?

15. Is laser hair removal permanent?

16. Who can perform laser hair removal?

TEMPORARY HAIR REMOVAL 17. Name the methods of temporary hair removal.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

18. is the most common form of temporary hair removal, particularly of

men’s facial hair.

19. During shaving, can help reduce irritation.

20. Shaving causes hair to grow thicker and stronger.

True

False

21. is commonly used to shape the eyebrows and remove undesirable

hairs from around the mouth and chin.

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22. List the steps in the pre-service procedure for preparing a facial room.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

22. Give the steps in the procedure to follow at the end of the day with respect to

the facial room.

a)

b)

c)

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d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

23. The natural arch of the eyebrow follows the , or the curved line

of the eye socket.

24. Explain how to determine the best shape for an eyebrow.

25. A(n) is a substance, usually a caustic alkali preparation, used to

temporarily remove superfluous hair by dissolving it at the skin surface level.

26. What happens when a depilatory is applied?

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27. It is a good idea to patch test a depilatory before a first treatment.

True

False

28. Which of the following is not appropriate for temporary hair removal from the

arms?

a) Waxing

b) Tweezing

c) Depilatories

d) All answers are correct.

29. A(n) removes hair from the bottom of the follicle.

30. Wax is a commonly used epilator.

True

False

31. What makes cold wax different from hot wax?

32. The time between waxings is generally to weeks.

33. Wax may be applied to various parts of the face and body, such as the

, , , , , and .

34. For a waxing service, hair should be at least -inch(es) (cm) long but

no longer than inch(es) (cm).

35. Removing or hair may cause the skin to temporarily feel

less soft.

36. Before beginning a wax treatment, be sure the client completes a(n)

form and signs a(n) form.

37. Why should disposable gloves be worn during waxing?

38. List the implements and materials needed for an eyebrow waxing procedure.

a)

b)

c)

d)

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e)

f )

g)

h)

i)

j)

k)

l)

39. Explain how to apply wax in the body waxing procedure.

39. is a temporary hair removal method in which cotton thread is

twisted and rolled along the surface of the skin, entwining the hair in the thread

and lifting it from the follicle.

40. Sugaring produces the same results as hot or cold wax.

True

False

41. After sugaring, residue can be dissolved with .

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